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MBR technology in wastewater treatment applications

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2015-10-28 01:30:12

MBR wastewater treatment at home and abroad in research and application, as well as the classification and characteristics of MBR technology. 


     Membrane Bioreactor Wastewater Treatment Characteristics


     Membrane bioreactor (MembraneBioreactor, referred to as MBR), is a membrane separation and biological treatment by the combination of a new, highly efficient sewage treatment technology. Membrane separation technology was first used in microbial fermentation industry, as the membrane material and membrane technology, expanding its application fields have been related to chemical, electronics, light industry, textile, metallurgy, food, petrochemical and sewage treatment fields. 


     1, MBR technology in wastewater treatment abroad, Study and Application of



     Membrane separation technology in wastewater treatment applications began in the late 20th century, 60 # 1969 for the first time the United States, Smith and others will be activated sludge process combined with ultrafiltration membrane modules for municipal wastewater treatment process studies, The process boldly using membrane separation technology to replace conventional activated sludge in secondary sedimentation tank, the use of film with high retention of physical properties, so that bio-reactor to maintain a high sludge concentration in the F / M ratio low work, so that you can get as much as possible so that oxidative degradation of organic matter to improve the removal efficiency of the reactor, which is the first prototype of MBR. 


     Beginning of the 20th century, 70 years, the study further the MBR # 1970, Hardt and others using the completely mixed biological reactor and ultrafiltration membrane process combined treatment of domestic sewage, won 98% of the COD removal efficiency and 100% to go In addition to bacteria results. In 1971, Bemberis and others conducted a MBR sewage treatment plant tests have achieved good results. In 1978, Bhattacharyya and others for the treatment of municipal sewage ultra filter membrane to obtain a non-potable reuse water. In 1978, Grethlein the use of anaerobic digestion tank and the membrane separation of the study to deal with domestic sewage, BOD and TN removal rates were 90% and 75% respectively. 


     During this period, although scholars from various countries of the MBR technology has done a lot of research work and obtained a certain amount of research results, but due to the type of membrane modules at that time very few membrane process is not very mature, membrane life is usually very short, which limits the long-term stable operation of MBR technology, which also limits the MBR technology in the promotion and application of practical engineering. 


     Beginning of the 20th century, 80 years later, with the materials, the development of science and raising the level of membrane to promote membrane bio-reactor technology forward, MBR process also will be developed rapidly. Japanese researchers in accordance with their small size! Land prices are the characteristics of MBR technology was strong development and research, and the MBR technology, research and development at the forefront, so that MBR technology has begun to move toward practical application. 


     The 20th century, 90 years later, MBR technology is the most rapid development, people in their lives on the MBR sewage treatment! Industrial wastewater treatment! The application of drinking water treatment, etc., have been studied, MBR has entered a stage of practical application and get a quick promotion. 


     The last years of the 20th century, people around the membrane bioreactor key issues of more research and have achieved some results. The membrane bio-reactor research from the laboratory to a small test! Pilot-scale trials into the production and application MBR of the medium and small sewage treatment plants have gradually seen reported. In early 1998, Europe's first application of submerged membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant built in the United Kingdom Porlock operation, became a British membrane bioreactor technology milestone. 


     Beginning of this century, people membrane bio-reactor research in the ascendant, making the technology is gradually maturing. 


     2, MBR technology in the domestic wastewater treatment research and application



     China on membrane bio-reactor research, though started late, but the fast pace of development.
 In 1991, Qin Yun-hua of membrane bio-reactor applications are reviewed to introduce the MBR research situation in Japan, which is our scholars membrane bio-reactor to do the earlier reports. Subsequently, JIANG Cheng-chang, who conducted a hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane in biotechnology in applied research. In 1995, Yao-waves MBR sewage purification for the petrochemical industry research, developed a set of separate laboratory-scale aerobic MBR. 


     Since 1995, China's membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment technology research work began in full swing, a number of research institutes to carry out this research, Tsinghua University, Harbin Institute of Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Ecological Environment Research Center, Tianjin University, , Tongji University and other pairs of membrane bio-reactor operating characteristics, factors affecting membrane flux, membrane fouling prevention and cleaning, etc. have done a great deal of painstaking research work. In 2000, Gu using domestic hollow fiber membrane made of domestic sewage in pilot-scale MBR studies, results showed that: MBR process effluent suspended solids is zero, the total number of bacteria than drinking water standards, COD and ammonia nitrogen removal rate are more than 95% and the effluent can be directly reused. In 2001, Zhang Liqiu such as right-in-one MBR treating domestic wastewater main design parameters of HRT, SRT, etc. to the theoretical derivation, in order to provide a reference to the actual engineering design, and the mechanism of membrane blocking in-depth studies to explore and put forward the internal membrane Bio-blocking presence. 


     Although our study was to investigate in the MBR technology has made remarkable achievements, but with Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States compared to other countries, China's research and test level is relatively backward, due to the type of membrane modules made fewer films than the quality of poor, life expectancy is usually shorter, so there are some practical application problems. Although in our membrane bioreactor for the treatment of domestic sewage has been applied, but so far, well-designed, well-applied membrane bio-reactor wastewater treatment plant has also been reported. 


     3, MBR technology classification



     Membrane bio-reactor mainly by the membrane module and the bio-reactor components # 2 and bioreactor under the membrane module combinations membrane bio-reactor can be divided into the following three categories: split-type membrane bioreactor, submerged membrane bioreactor and hybrid membrane bioreactor. 


     3.1 Recirculated Membrane Bio-Reactor 

     Split-type membrane bioreactor is the membrane module and bioreactor set up separate, relatively independent, membrane modules and the bio-reactor by pump and pipeline to connect # split membrane bio-reactor process as shown in Figure 1 . 


     The process membrane module and the bio-reactor separate and operate independently, and thus interfere with each other small, easy-to-adjust controls, and that membrane modules placed in bio-reactor, it is more easy to clean # but its power consumption to replace a larger , pressure pumps provide high pressure, resulting in high-speed cross-flow membrane surface, slow membrane fouling, which is a big reason for its power costs, energy consumption per tonne of water for 2 ~ 10kWh, conventional activated sludge process is about energy consumption 10 ~ 20 times the energy consumption of the lower submerged membrane bio-reactor research gradually people's attention. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com


     3.2 Submerged Membrane Bioreactor 

     Submerged membrane bioreactor originated in Japan, mainly used for treatment of domestic sewage, in recent years, some European countries are also keen on its research and application of # submerged membrane bioreactor hollow fiber membrane module is placed in the bioreactor directly Internally, sometimes known as the submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR), relying on gravity or pump suction negative pressure or vacuum as the water powered # submerged membrane bioreactor process shown in Figure 2. The process due to membrane module being placed in bio-reactor, reducing the processing system of the area, and the process with the suction pump or vacuum suction outlet, power consumption is far less than the cost of the split membrane bio-reactor, The power consumption per tonne of water is about split-type a / 10. if we adopt the gravity water, you can complete this part of the cost savings. However, membrane module submerged in the mixture in the bioreactor, pollution faster, but also cleaning up is a bit trickier, need to be removed from the reactor membrane modules. 


     3.3 Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor 

     Hybrid membrane bioreactor was also placed on the membrane module into bioreactor by gravity or vacuum the water, but a different type of bioreactor # hybrid MBR, is installed in the bioreactor packing to form a composite processing system. 


     In the hybrid membrane bioreactor installed in packing two purposes: First, to improve impact resistance load handling system to ensure that the system processing results; 2 is to reduce the suspended reactor of activated sludge concentration, reducing the membrane fouling of the level to ensure a high membrane flux. 


     Hybrid membrane bioreactor, due to the growth of packing a large number of micro-organisms attached to ensure the system has a higher treatment effect and have the ability to resist shock loading, without cause within the suspended sludge concentration in the reactor is affected by high membrane flux. 


     4, MBR process characterized by



     4.1 pairs of pollutant removal efficiency 

     MBR of the suspended solids (SS) concentration and turbidity has a very good removal effect. 
As the membrane modules of the membrane pore size is very small (0.01 ~ 1μm), bio-reactor can be all the suspended solids and sludge retention down, the solid-liquid separation is much better than the secondary sedimentation tank, MBR on the SS's removal rate at 99% or more, even up to 100%; turbidity removal rate is also more than 90% similar to the water turbidity and water. 



     Retention due to the efficient role of the membrane modules, will be fully activated sludge are trapped in the reactor, allowing the sludge concentration in the reactor can reach a higher level, up to 40 ~ 50g / L. In this way, will be greatly reduced bio-reactor sludge load, increase MBR removal efficiency of organic matter on the domestic sewage, the average COD removal rate above 94%, BOD, the average removal rates of over 96%. 


     At the same time, due to the separation of the role of membrane modules, making bio-reactor hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT) are completely separate, so that you can make slow-growing, long generation time of microorganisms (such as the nitrifying bacteria) can also survive in the reactor to ensure that the MBR In addition to the role of a highly efficient degradation of organic compounds, but also has a good nitrification. Studies have shown that, MBR in the treatment of domestic sewage, the right ammonia nitrogen removal rate of more than 98% on average, the effluent ammonia concentrations of less than 1mg / L. 


     In addition, after the membrane module choose the right aperture, MBR pairs of bacteria and viruses also have a good removal efficiency, thus eliminating the need for conventional treatment in the disinfection process, greatly simplifying the process. 


     In addition, the DO concentration is low, the bacteria that exist within the micelle oxygen or anaerobic zone, created the conditions for denitrification. Using only aerobic MBR process, although TP removal efficiency is not high, but if carried out with the combination of anaerobic, can greatly improve the removal rate of TP. Studies have shown that using A / O composite MBR process, the removal rate of TP up to 70%. 


     4.2 has a greater flexibility and practicality 

     In the municipal sewage or industrial wastewater treatment, traditional treatment processes (primary sedimentation tank grid grit chamber aeration tank secondary sedimentation tank of disinfectant pool) process is longer, covers an area of large, but can not guarantee water quality. The MBR process (screen filter MBR) process due to short, small footprint! Handling characteristics of water and flexible, while showing a clear advantage # MBR of a quantity of water according to actual situation, simply increase or decrease in the number of membrane modules can be completed on-chip output volume adjustment, very simple and convenient. 


     For the conventional activated sludge process in the sludge bulking phenomenon occurs, MBR, Shen pool because they are not two solid-liquid separation can be easily resolved. In this way, thus greatly reducing the complexity of management operations, so good! Stability of water possible. 


     At the same time, MBR process is very easy to implement automation to improve the automation level of sewage treatment. 

     4.3 solves the difficult problem of sludge disposal surplus 

     Disposal of surplus sludge is sewage treatment plant is running good or bad, one of the key issues # MBR process, the sludge load is very low, the reaction inside the relative lack of nutrients, micro-organisms in endogenous respiration area, sludge production rate is low, thus making the remaining small amount of sludge produced, SRT has been extended to remove the remaining sludge concentration, can eliminate the need for sludge thickening, while the direct dehydration, which greatly saves the cost of sludge treatment. A study concludes that, when dealing with domestic sewage, MBR the best time in the 35d mud around. 


     From the above we can see, MBR technology has the advantage of, is currently unmatched by other treatment processes # in the process in municipal wastewater or sewage treatment! High concentration organic wastewater, biodegradable organic waste water and water reuse and so on have broad application prospects. 
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